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Electronics Manufacturing Terms and Definitions

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Q Y Z

Kingfield Electronics have been operating in contract electronics manufacturing and product management solutions since 1985, and have a wealth of knowledge in all aspects of the industry. Here we have compiled a glossary of terms and definitions for reference purposes.


AC7120 is the Nadcap audit criteria for circuit card assembly.

Advanced Substrates
Advanced Substrates are a form of printed circuit board materials. They are so named for the superior thermal properties that they offer which enables their use in applications that reuire high-frequency transmission.

AML (Approved Manufacturer List)
Decided through the supplier evaluation process, the ASL (Approved Supplier List) is a list of suppliers who have passed a qualitative assesment. This list will define who a firm can and cannot use to procure materials or services.

Analog Circuit
Analog circuits use continuously variable analog signals to communicate between components. Whilst an analog circuit uses continuous voltages and currents, a digital device’s state is determined by discrete time and values as opposed to a continuous flow.

Annular Ring
An annular ring is the ring of copper left as a pad between layers of circuitboard after a hole has been drilled through it. The annular ring will typically surround the via that connects two pads.

AOI – Automated Optical Inspection
AOI is an automated visual inspection that is used on a variety of components and products such as transistros, LCDs and printed circuit boards. Detects surface defects and missing or incorrect components.

Aperture Information
The aperture information is a text file describing the shape and size of each element and component on a printed circuit board.

APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning)
APQP is a process used to develop products within a certain industry. Regularly used in the automotive industry.

In the case of electrical engineering, the array is the arrangement of components in ordered rows and columns on the printed circuit board.

Aspect Ratio
Aspect ratio determines the relative horizontal and vertical sizes of a board, screen or component, for example if a board has a PCB has the ration 2:1 the width is twice the height.

An assembly is a collection of electrical components that have been connected together on a PCB or other surface to perform a specific function utilising electrical energy.

ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits)
An ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) is an integrated circuit that has been customised for use in a particular application or function.

AS9100 RevC
The AS9100RevC (Revision C) is a standardized quality management system for the aerospace industry introduced in 2009. Many manufacturers require the AS9100RevCas a condition for business.

Automated Test Equipment (ATE)
ATE is designed to test different devices using control systems and automated information technology to quickly test a variety of components.

AVL (Approved Vendor List)
* See ‘Approved Supplier List’

AXI – Automated X-Ray Inspection
Based on automaticed optical inspection, AXI )automated X-ray inspection) uses X-rays to automatically inspect features typically hidden from view, such as connections hidden under chips.

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Backpanels or Backplanes
A backplane is a collection of electrical connectors in parallel with one another so that each pin is linked to the same relative pin of the other connectors to form a computer bus.

BGA – Ball Grid Array
A BGA is a form of surface mount packaging used for integrated circuits, primarily in microprocessor devices. The BGA features pads at the bottom of the package with tiny balls of solder attached.

Board Thickness
The board thickness is the measurement of a PCB’s depth and can dictate the variety of components that can be applied to it.

BOM (Bill of Materials)
The BOM is a list of the quantities of the components and materials needed for a product or application. The BOM can be organised in several ‘modules’ or ‘levels’.

Box Build Assembly
A box build assembly is a complete system build that encompasses places the PCB’s within a final product assembly or enclosure such as a cabintet, backplane or rack.

BTO – (Build To Order)
A customer built product or project defined by the specific needs of a client. Often outside the range of normal specifications, therefore requiring a custom approach.

Built-In Self Test
A Built-In Self Test is a mechanism built into an application or machine that allows it to routinely test itself for malfunctions. Provides low cycle repair times and higher levels of reliability.

Buried Vias
A buried via is used to connect different layers of PCB but are not accessible from the exterior and hidden out of view.

Burn-In Testing
Burn-in Testing is a quality assurance process used to exercise the components of a system prior to it going into service. Tests the possibility of early failures by stressing the components.

Binary Unit System

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CAD (Computer Aided Design)
CAD is the use of a computer program or software to design a product. Allows the designer to edit, improve and review every aspect of the design process.

CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture)
CAM is the use of a computer program or software linked to manufacturing machines to regulate and control the manufacturing process.

CAPA (Corrective Action/Protective Action)
CAPA (Corrective and Protective Action) A concept within good manufacturing practice (GMP) to eliminate causes of non-conformities and other undesirable situations, evaluating the roots of all risks to prevent occurence and recurrence.

Capacitance is the capability of a component to store electrical charge, such as a capacitor. Anny object or component that can be electrical charged exhibits capacitance.

A capacitor is a component that can store electrical energy electrostatically in an electric field. A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component.

CAR (Corrective Action Request)
A CAR is the act of originating a corrective action. Will function as part of the CAPA concept.

CEMS – Contract Electronic Manufacturing Services
CEMS os a term used to describe a firm that designs, test, manufactures, distributes and repairs electronic components and component assemblies for original equipment manufacturers.

Change Management
Change Management refers to approach with which any changes are made within the project management process, where changes to the nature or the objectives of the project are formally introduced and approved.

Change Order
See ECN (engineering change notice) and ECO (engineering change order)

Change Request
See ECN (engineering change notice) and ECO (engineering change order)

A chip or microchip is an integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit which is a collection of electronic circuits all built onto a single small plate or ‘chip’.

COB – (Chip-On-Board)
COB refers to semiconductor assebl technology where the microchip is directly mounted onto it’s final circuit board as opposed to the traditional assembly methods.

Accordance with a set of established standards, specifications, laws or regulations that govern quality standards within the electronics industry.

Conflict Minerals
These are minerals that have been mined within conflict zones and are often connected to instances of armed conflict and human rights abuses.

CM – Contract Manufacturing
Contract Manufacturing is when a manufacturer is contracted with a firm to produce the firms components or products.

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A daughter board (also known as a piggyback board or mezzanine board) is a circuitboard that has been used as an extension for an existing motherboard and will often feature a variety of attachments to connect them to other boards.

Delamination is a failure mechanism for laminated materials. The loss of coating adhesion that leads to a loss in strength and mechanical appearance, as well as aesthetic.

Desmear is the removal of melted resin due to friction and drill debris from hole walls after they have been drilled into circuit boards.

DFM – Design For Manufacturing
DFM is a concept that focuses on designing products that are easy to manufacturer whilst keeping down process costs and expenditure.

DFX – Design For Excellence
DFX (Design for X, Design for Excellence) is a concept that focuses on a wide range of specific design guidelines that aim to apply specific engineering knowledge to achieving excellence.

DHF (Design History File)
A Design History File is a collection of documentation that will describe the history of a products design , particularly of a medical device.

DHR (Device History Record)
A document that refers to the design history of a medical device. the DHR will contribute towards the eventual Design History File of a particular product.

A dielectric is an electrical insulator that conducts electrical charge poorly, the charge only causing a slight shift in equilibrium and leading to dielectric polarization.

Digitizing or digitization is the process of converting previously analog signals and information into a digital format and organised into descrete units of data such as bits or bytes.

Dimensional Stability
Dimensional stability is the ability of a material, component or product to maintain iits original dimensions when being used for its intended function.

DIP (Dual In-Line Package)
A DIP is an electronic device package that is built into a rectangular housing with its connecting pins arrayed in two parallel rows.

Direct Order Fulfillment
Direct Order Fulfilment is simply the complete process from point of sales to the purchaser through to the delivery of the product.

DMR (Device Master Record)
DMR is a record holding the technical description of a device controlled by a regulating body.

Double-Sided Board
A version of a printed board circuit that features a conductive pattern on both sides of the board and allows for components to be applied to both sides.

DRAM – (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
DRAM is generally the most common form of random access memory and can be found within personal computers and workstations.

Dry-Film Resists
Designed for use in the manufacture of PCBs and chemically machined parts, dry-film resists provide component protection and are resistant to etching processes and electroplating.

Dry-Film Solder Mask
Applied to PCBs using photographic methods, the dry film solder mask is designed to protect the board against oxidation and prevent solder bridges from forming between close solder pads.

DSP – (Digital Signal Processors)
A DSP is a specialised microprocessor designed for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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EBOM (Engineering Bill of Materials)
See ‘Bill of Materials’

ECAD Software (Electrical Computer Aided Design Software)
Software tools that allows for the design and development of electronic systems.

ECN (Engineering Change Notice)
A document used to both record and authorise any changes or alterations to a specific design.

ECO (Engineering Change Order)
See Engineering Change Order

ECR (Engineering Change Request)
See Engineering Change Order

EDA (Electronic Design Automation)

Edge Connector
The edge section of a printed circuit board. This section consists of traces leading to the very edge of the board that are intended to plug into a matching socket.

Electrical Test
Generally, this means the quality and functionality of any electrical product, including circuits, components and appliances.

Electroless Copper
A layer of copper that has been applied using an autocatalytic plating solution, without the use of electrical current. This copper will be deposited on the surface of a printed circuit board.

Electronic Component
Defines a broad number of electronic devices and physical entities used in an electronic system to effect the flow and direction of electrons.

A process through which a conductor is coated in a layer of metal by using electical current to reduce dissolved metal to form a coherent layer on an electrode.

EMS – Electronics Manufacturing Services
A term used to describe a company or firm that designs, manufactures, builds and tests electronic components, devices and products.

A protective cabinet for electronic equipment. This includes switches, knobs and displays and other electronic components that may pose a danger to the public.

ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold)
ENIG is a form of surface plating used for printed circuit boards and consists of an electroless nickel plating covered with a thin layer of immersion gold to provide protection from oxidisation.

Environmental Stress Screening
A quality testing process that exposes a new or repaired component to stresses such as high temperatures or heavy vibrations to simulate the toughest conditions that they may experience.

Environmental Test
A quality test to ensure that a component can withstand use in tough environments including factors such as variations in temperature, salt spray, fungus, solar radiation and sand.

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
Usually a collection of business management software programs, ERP helps businesses to store and manage data from every stage of business, including product planning, marketing and shipping.

A process that removes excess dielectric material from the barrels of holes drilled into a multilayer board to a certain depth to reveal internal conductor surfaces.

Etching is a process that uses acid to ‘etch’ conductive pathways onto a printed circuit board, allowing for connections between different components on the PCB.

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Flex Circuit Assembly
A collection of electronic components that have been assembled by mounting the circuits and devices on flexible plastic substrate. Allows the assembly to be used in applications where there is limited space or a requirement to flex during normal used (flip phone).

Flex Circuit Assembly
A collection of electronic components that have been assembled by mounting the circuits and devices on flexible plastic substrate. Allows the assembly to be used in applications where there is limited space or a requirement to flex during normal used (flip phone).

Flip Chips
Also known as a controlled collapse chip connection (C4), a flip chip is a method for interconnecting semiconductor devices to external circuitry. Known as a ‘flip’ chip because to mount the chip to external circuitry, the chip is flipped upside down.

FFF (Form, Fit & Function)
Also referred to as F3 or FFF, form, fit and function is a term used to describe an items idnetifying characteristics. If the F3 criteria of one item is identitical to another, they are considered interchangeable.

Fine Pitch
Fine Pitch is a term used to describe a chip package with a lead pitch that is .050 or below, generally between 0.31 and 0.20.

First Article Inspection (FAI)
A quality testing measure that evaluates the properties of an initial sample item to ensure it meets its specifications and conforms with standardised quality levels.

The pattern or amount of board real estate that is taken up by a componenton a circuit or a circuit on a larger assembly.

Full System Build
A full build process that includes the development and integration of populated PCBs, power supplies, enclosures, cables and additional components into a single functioning system.

Functional Test and Functional Testing
A quality assurance process that tests components based on their specifications of the components itself. A system test based on specifications as opposed to requirements.

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Gerber File
A standardized file format used to communicate design and manufacturing information for printed circuit boards. A core component within the industries supply chain.

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice)
Good Manufacturing Practice are practices that are created and required by the agencies that control authorization and licensing for the manufacture and sale of food, drug and pharmaceutical products.

Ground Plane
An electrically conductive surface connected to an electrical ground. Commonly a large area of copper foil that serves as the return path for the components on the PCB.

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HVLM (High-Volume, Low-Mix)
A production process that focuses on offering a high volume of proudcts, but with little variance between product type.

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IC – Integrated Circuits
A collection of electronic circuits on a small chip of semiconductor material. Integrated circuits are prevelant in almost all electronic equipment today.

In-Circuit Test and In-Circuit Testing
An electrical probe test that evaluates a populated printed circuit board for any open resistance, capacitance and shorts. The aim of the test is show whether the assembly has been correctly fabricated and assembled.

In-Situ Dynamic Thermal Cycling Stress Testing
ISDTCS is a testing method that exposes components and assemblies to extreme temperatures, both low and high for several cycles, to evaluate potential early product failures.

ISO – International Organization for Standardization
A global governing body that sets manufacturing standards internationally. The ISO is composed of representatives from various national standards organisations.

ISO 13485
An ISO standard that represents the requirements for a comprehensive quality management system for the design and manufacture of medical devices. First published in 2003.

ISO 14000
An ISO standard related to environmental management aimed at helping organizations minimize how their operations negatively affect the environment and to comply with all applicable laws and regulations.

ISO 9000
An ISO standard that defines, establishes and maintains an effective quality assurance system for manufacturing and service industires.

ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)
ITAR is a US export control law that monitors the manufacturing, sales and distribution of defence related technology.

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JIT (Just In Time)
JIT is a production strategy that improves ROI by reducing the in-process inventory and associated costs.

JTAG (Joint Test Action Group)
JTAG ia the common name for Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. Initially devised to test PCBs using a boundary scan.

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A scheduling scheme for JIT production.

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Lamination is used to seal a stock of components and boards into one inseperable product by applying pressure and heat.

Laser Direct Imaging
A process that allows for an increase in board density through the use of increasingly accurate and small micro laser technology.

Laser Trimming
A process that uses a laser to trim and adjut the operating parameters of an electronic circuit. A common application uses the laser to burn away portions of resistors to raise their resistance value.

Lead Free (Pb Free) Manufacturing
Means all components and processes are completely free of lead as per RoHs and WEEE directives.

Leakage Current
A leakage current is a gradual loss of energy due to dielectric material not being a perfect insulator and having som non-zero conductivity.

Lean Manufacturing
A production practice that considers the expenditure of resources on anything other than the creation of value for the customer as unnecessary and wasteful.

LVHM (Low-Volume, High-Mix)
The opposite of HVLM, LVHOM is a production process that offers a wide variety of different products but at a much lower rate of production and volume.

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An assembly, product or component that has been made especially to a company or clients specifications.

Major Defect
A product defect that stops the component or application from functioning or causes total breakdown.

Manufacturing Deviation
A temporary change or deviation from an otherwise standard manufacturing process or procedure, such as substituting in new components or machinery.

The difference between the cost of a component or product and it’s actual selling price. I.e. combined manufacturing, design and delivery cost versus retail price.

MBOM (Manufacturing Bill of Materials)
The MBOM is a list of the quantities of the components and materials needed for the manufacture of a product or application. The MBOM can be organised in several ‘modules’ or ‘levels’.

MCAD Software (Mechanical Computer Aided Design Software)

MCR (Manufacturing Change Request)
See Change Request

An aesthetic effect that results in spotting or crossing below the surface of the base laminate . Occurs due to a seperation of fibers in the glass cloth at the weave intersection.

Mechatronics Assembly
An assembly process that combines both electronic and mechanical engineering practices. This includes both manufacturing techniques and technologies from both disciplines.

MES – Manufacturing Execution Systems
A computerized system that can provide accurate real-time information and show manufacturing decision makers how to optimise their production process.

Micro Ball Grid Array
Used for integrated circuits, BGAs (Ball Grid Arrays) is a surface mount technology (SMT) that uses a grid of solder balls to conduct electrical signals from the integrated circuit board.

A microprocessor is a silicon chip with a computer processor built onto it. The majority of the central processing unit’s (CPU) functions will be contained within the microprocessor.

Used to diagnose problems within the assembly, microsectioning consists of a destructive testing technique that allows for the investigation of components defects, thermo-mechanical failures, processing failures and opens or shorts.

Microvia and Microvias
Also known as a via, a microvia is an electrical connection between, within or underneath component pads. Microvias are typically a diameter of 6mils or less and will be used to connect between printed circuit boards and high density interconnect substrates.

Minimum Conductor Space
Calculated using factors such as creepage and clearance, the minimum conductor space will vary by condition such as internal vs external, coated vs uncoated and high or low altitude. The minimum possible distance between conductors on a PCB.

Minimum Conductor Width
The smallest width of any conductors.

MRP – Materials Requirements Planning
Materials requirements planning is a process that is a combination of production planning and inventory control often based on software.

Multichip Module
A single component that has been created from multiple integrated circuits, semiconductors and other electronic components. The components are united onto a single unified substrate.

Multi-level BOM
A single component that has been created from multiple integrated circuits, semiconductors and other electronic components. The components are united onto a single unified substrate.

Municipal Waste Incineration

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NADCAP (National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program)
NADCAP is an accreditation program for aerospace, engineering, defense and related industries. NADCAP is a global cooperative recognised across the world.

A term used to describe the connectivity of an electronic design and will usually describe little more than instances and nets.

NPD (New Product Development)
The end to end process of bringing a brand new product to market. From idea generation to market research and development.

NPI – New Product Introduction
Information that is relevant to a new product being introduced to the market. May include component qualities, materials and accreditations.

NPTH (Non Plated Through Hole)
An NPTH is a form of technology used to mount electronic components to printed circuit boards. Components use leads that are inserted through a hole and soldered on the other side to connect them to the board.

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OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer
The original manufacturer who designed, engineered and built the component or part.

A part that has been designed for mass use and will likely meet a basic standard of functions across a variety of devices, as opposed to a specialist custom option.

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A pad or contact pad is a surface area used to achieve electrical contact between components on a printed circuit board.

Parent Item
An item within a Bill of Materials that will contain another item (sub-item or child item).

Part Name
The given name of any part or component.

Part Number
A part number is used as an identifier of a particular part design used in the electronic components industry.

Pattern Plating
A selective plating process where a pattern is applied where a conductor needs to be formed on a printed circuit board.

Parylene Coating
A protective coating that is applied directly to the surface of a component, device, or surface. Provides an excellent moisture barrier and is often used to coat printed circuit boards and medical devices.

PCA – Printed Circuit Assembly
A PCB that has been populated electronic components. Also known as a printed circuit board assembly.

PCB – Printed Circuit Board
A single, double or multilayered circuit board that electrically connects components by using features such as pads and conductive tracks atched from copper sheets. These etchings are laminated onto the non-conductive substrate board.

PDM System (Product Data Management System)
A function within the product lifestyle that is responsible for the management, upkeep, publishing and editing of product data.

PDX (Product Data Exchange)
The exchange of data from one vendor or manufacturers CAD system to another.

Photo Print
Creating a circuit pattern image by hardening a photosensitive polymeric material by using light and photographic film.

A terminal on a through-hole component that is also known as a lead.

Pin Header
An electrical connector consisting of one or more rows of pins. Pin headers can be used to connect to a ribbon cable connector or as a recipient for jumpers.

Pitch is the spac ebetween the centre of one BGA (ball grid assembly) to the centre of the next one.

PLM (Product Lifecycle Management)
The process of managing an entire lifecycle of a product from early concept through to design, manufacture and distribution.

PTH – Pin Through Hole
A method of connecting electronic components to one side of the printed circuit board utilising pin through hole connections (a pin inserting into a terminal).

PWA – Printed Wire Board
See Printed Circuit Board.

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PWA – Printed Wire Board
See Printed Circuit Board.

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Rapid Prototype Assembly
The ability of a manufacturer to quickly turn round and early stage prototype of a component or product.

The marking of an bill of materials or assembly drawing used to indicate a change or modification.

Reference Designator
Used to identify a component in an electronic schematic or a PCB, the reference designator commonly consists of one or two letter followed by a string of numbers.

Reflow Soldering
An attachment process that uses a powdered solder and flux paste to attach an electronic component to a contact pad. The entire assembly will then be subjected to controlled heat, melting the solder and permanently connecting the joint.

Resin Smear
Resin that has been smeared onto the surface or the edge of the conductive area . Often caused by drilling.

A coating material used to protect areas of conductive pattern from the process of component attachment, such as soldering etching and plating.

Revision Control
The management of changes and editing made to important product or component information documents.

A PCB construction that combines both flexible circuits with their rigid counterparts.

RMA (Return Material Authorization)
An agreement between a supplier and a client to have a purchase shipped back to the manufacturer in exchange for a refund.

RoHS – (Restriction of Hazardous Substances)
RoHS is a directive that limits certain dangerous and hazardous materials used in electronic components and assembly processes.

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Scanning Electron Microscopy
A process that uses a scanning electron microscope to create images of a sample by scanning it with a beam of focused electrons, providing information about the sample’s surface topography and composition.

SCAR (Supplier Corrective Action Request)
SCAR is the originating point for a corrective action issued to a supplier due to a problem to do with their product or service.

SCM – Supply Chain Management
The management process that sees the through to entire process of goods. From raw materials through to finished goods.

SDRAM – (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
A form of dynamic rnadom access memory that is synchronized with a system bus. SDRAM is widely used in computers.

Secure Production
A standard of security during the manufacturing process that guarantees a secrue environment during the process.

A component or material that carries a level of electrical conductivitiy that resides between the level of a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors are possibly the most common component found on circuitboards.

Signal Layer
A signal layer is a printed circuit board in which traces are laid.

SKU (Stock Keeping Unit)
An equivalent to a part number, part identifier or product number, a SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) are unique identifiers used to identify a unique product and its attributes.

Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC)
A surface-mounted integrated curcuit package with eight or more gull wing leads on each of its lengths.

SMD (Surface Mount Device)
An SMD is an electronic component that is attached to the surface of a printed circuit board.

SMOBC (Solder Mask Over Bare Copper)
A solder mask is a dry-film of solder that has been placed over the bare copper of conductive patters to prevent oxidisation and the building of solder bridges between pads.

SMT – Surface Mount Technology
The method of producing electronic assemblies, circuits and products by mounting electronic onto the surface of printed circuit boards.

A fusible metal alloy that is melted down and then cooled to form connections between electronic components on printed circuit boards.

Solder Mask
Applied to PCBs as a thin layer of polymer, a solder mask is designed to protect the board against oxidation and prevent solder bridges from forming between close solder pads.

SOJ – (Small-Outline J-lead)
A chip module that attaches chips to PCB surfaces by using inward extendinding J-shaped pins.

SPC (Statistical Process Control)
A quality control process that uses statistical methods to ensure the process is operating at it’s maximum potential.

A term used to refer to the process of combining several PCB boards to form a larger PCB array, or collection of connected PCBs.

SRAM – (Static Random Access Memory)
SRAM is a semiconductor that differentiates from DRAM in that it does not need to be periodically refreshed.

A substrate is any surface to which a sealing or coating has been applied, or the underlying layer of a material.

System Design and Engineering
A collection of processes that takes an electronic product from requirements through to design and manufacture.

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Tape Automated Bonding
A process that connects external circuits to a PCB using a plyamide film to connect bare integrated circuits onto a PCB.

Test Point
A certain point on a circuit board that is used to test the circuits functionality and performance.

Thermal Pad
A thermal pad or thermal relief is a normal PCB pad (See ‘Pad’) that connects to a copper pour using a number of copper spokes.

Thick Film Hybrids
A Thick Film Hybrid is created from an additive process that places several layers of conductor, resistor and dielectric layers onto an electrically insulating substrate through a screen-printing process.

Three-Dimensional Laser Paste
A volumetric inspection process that utilizes a microscope with lasers.

Refers to the process of inserting component leads into holes that are drilled in printed circuit boards and soldered to pads on the opposite side either manually or by automated mount machines.

Tooling Holes
A hole found in circuit boards for the purpose of positioning for alignment during the fabrication process.

Trace (or Route)
Wiring layout for electronics connections.

Time to market.

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Unit of measure

UV Curing
Refers to the process of using high intensity ultraviolet light to quickly cure/harden coating.

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Via or VIAS
Via is the pathway between layers in a physical circuit that runs through one or more neighboring layers.

Gaps within solder joints that can cause uneven distribution of current and/or heat and can cause cracks.

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Wave Soldering
Waves of molten solder used to attach metal components to a PCB. For large scale soldering process.

Waste electrical and electronic equipment directive

The process of migrating copper ions into inuslating material.

Wire Bonding
The method of making intergrated circuits and its packaging during the fabrication process.